This list was compiled and published in my book ‘Do I Need to See a Therapist?’. It was correct at the time of press (May 2021) but since then there is likely to be newer therapies available that are not on the list. I will add updates to the end of the list.


Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) –

ACT is known as a ‘third-wave’ CBT approach, but it differs from CBT in a few ways. One of the main differences is that instead of challenging thoughts and getting tangled up looking for the evidence against a negative thought, an ACT approach would be to accept the thought and ‘lean in’ to the experience, rather than push against it and avoid. Mindfulness, compassion and acceptance are important aspects of an ACT approach.

Accelerated Empathic Therapy – (AET) –

Developed by Michael Alpert, AET is similar to focusing-oriented techniques in that it is an approach to recognizing and tuning into what our body is doing when we feel certain emotions.

Accelerated Experiential Dynamic Psychotherapy (AEDP) –

AEDP was developed by Dr Diana Fosha and is an experiential therapy (meaning it doesn’t only rely on talking but ‘experiencing’). It aims to blend a focus on experiencing emotions within the context of a healing relationship in order to bring about change. AEDP is an approach that takes into account contemporary research into interpersonal neurobiology, attachment, neuroplasticity and affective neuroscience. AEDP therapists have to be registered/accredited in a core mental health profession prior to training. 

Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART) –

ART was developed by Laney Rosenzweig, a marriage and family therapist. It is a blend of EMDR, CBT, Gestalt and Brief Psychodynamicbrief psychodynamic therapy. It aims to help clients rapidly reprogramme trauma memories.

Advanced Integrative therapy (AIT) –

Developed by Princeton professor and psychotherapist Asha Clinton, AIT is an integration of psychodynamic, CBT, object relations, energy psychology, Jungian and transpersonal theories. It is a trauma-focused approach to unblocking and healing the energy of the body and mind.

Adlerian therapy –

Developed by Alfred Adler, one of the ‘big three’ fathers of psychotherapy alongside Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. Adler termed his approach ‘Individual Psychology’.individual psychology’. The Adlerian approach aims to blend the study of the individual with their wider societal context. 

Affect Phobia Therapy (APT) –

Affect phobia therapy was developed by the Ppsychologist Leigh McCullocugh in the 1990s. It is a variant of psychodynamic psychotherapy that now integrates elements of short-term dynamic therapy, CBT and experiential therapies. It focuses on the fear of feelings as a central aspect of many psychological difficulties. Similar to AEDP, APT-Ccertified therapists have to be registered/accredited with a recognized body prior to training.

Attachment-Based Therapy –

This is an approach that involves understanding an individual’s early relationships with caregivers and how these influence the person’s subsequent relationships. It is based on psychoanalytic theory.

Attachment-Based Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (AB-ISTDP) –

ABISTDPAB-ISTDP uses neurobiological findings in combination with an attuned therapeutic relationship to help clients with developmental and attachment-based traumatic experiences.

Behavioural Activation (BA) –

Behavioural Activation is a technique within CBT that is usually used for depression. It focuses on helping to get motivation back again by utilizing actions that help to activate feelings of reward, achievement and pleasure.

Bereavement counselling –

Grief is a process that is natural although it can involve stages which are painful to move through, especially when we lose a loved one and find ourselves alone. A bereavement counsellor can provide support for you through this difficult time.

Body Psychotherapies – and

There are a wide range of body psychotherapies, and the term is also being used for those therapies that aim to integrate current findings in neurobiology and integrate brain-mind-body into an integrated psychotherapy. In Body Psychotherapybody psychotherapy and Somatic Psychologysomatic psychology, the brain-mind-body are seen as integral and not separate. The focus is not only on talking and language but also on what information is stored in your body and how your body is part of the expression of yourself and your feelings. This is a list of some of the therapies that tend to come under this heading:

Bioenergetic Analysis –

Biosynthesis –

Bodynamic – Somatic Developmental Psychology –

Chiron Integral-Relational –

Embodied-Relational Therapy –

Energetic integration – and

Hakomi –

Integrative Body Psychotherapy –

Interplay –

Lifespan Integration –

Pesso Boyden System Psychomotor / Psychomotor therapy –

Sensorimotor Psychotherapy –

Somatic Experiencing (SE) –

Somatic Stress Release Technique –

Total Release Experience (TRE) –

Trauma Relief Unlimited (TRU) –

Brainspotting –

Brainspotting therapy was developed by David Grand PhD in 2003. David had trained in Somatic Experiencing and EMDR and had blended these two therapies into a technique which he called ‘Natural Flow EMDR’. He then developed this further into ‘Bbrainspotting’. It is an approach that uses the key role of a healing relationship between client and therapist (called the ‘dual-attunement framework’), in association with the processing of traumatic material whilst ‘holding’ a specific spot in the client’s visual field. Brainspotting uses various eye positions or ‘gaze spots’ either when processing distressing material or for strengthening places in the body where clients feel calm and safe. Brainspotting therapists have to have core mental health training prior to being certified in this technique.

Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT) –

Developed in the 1980s by Dr Anthony Ryle, CAT is an approach that integrates elements of psychodynamic therapy, attachment therapy and CBT. It is a time-limited approach that is also available in many NHS services.

Cognitive Behavioural Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) –

CBASP is a therapy that is used with chronically depressed clients. It blends elements of CBT with interpersonal and dynamic therapy. Through an in-depth situational analysis of a problem the therapy aims to show how our behaviour can create the problems we then experience.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) –

CBT incorporates a range of behavioural and cognitive therapies that share the principle that how we feel, what we think and what we do are related and that we can change how we feel by altering how we think and what we do. It is a psychotherapy that has gathered a large amount of evidence and has been adapted for brief and short-term interventions as well as for online and self-help interventions. In CBT an issue is broken down into its elements in order to assess what is driving the problem and maintaining it. Different strategies are then used to make changes and alter either thought patterns or behaviour patterns. There are a range of protocols that have been developed in CBT for various difficulties, such as David Clark’s Panic Disorder Protocol.

If you are looking for a CBT therapist, do look for either BABCP accreditation or Chartered Psychologistchartered psychologist status. If not then do check they are accredited or registered with a psychotherapy body that is recognized or are a Chartered Psychologist. The standard CBT qualification is a Postgraduate Diploma in CBT or an MSc in CBT. On these university courses there is a mixture of theory work, practical and supervised client work, placements, observed live sessions and regular clinical supervision. Home study and short distance-learning courses cannot provide the depth of training needed to qualify someone as a therapist. Check through the person’s listing and see what qualifications they state.

Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) –

CPT is a form of trauma-focused CBT that is used for PTSD. It focuses on the meaning of the traumatic event and offers techniques for processing and altering this negative meaning that is keeping people stuck. Those who use CPT will already be practising/registered therapists who go on to take this extra training for their trauma work.

Coherence Therapy –

Coherence therapy (previously called ‘depth-oriented brief therapy’) was developed in the 1990s by Bruce Ecker and Laurel Hulley. The overarching principle of this approach is that rather than signalling pathology, the memories, thoughts, feelings and behaviours that we experience have a ‘coherence’ and are there for a reason. Therapy involves the bringing into awareness of patterns and expressions, in the context of an empathic and attuned therapeutic relationship.

Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT) –

CFT was developed as a theory and approach to therapy by Professor Paul Gilbert, OBE. It blends elements of evolutionary psychology with CBT and neuroscience. CFT works with three systems: the drive and achievement system, the social engagement system and the threat system, with the aim of gaining a balance and regulating emotional disturbance. 

Comprehensive Resource Model (CRM) –

Created by Lisa Schwarz, CRM was initially developed for clients suffering with chronic PTSD, attachment disorders and dissociative disorders, but it is being more widely used with other difficulties. It is an approach that blends elements of neurobiology with relational and somatic work and spirituality.

Contemplative Psychotherapy &and Core Process Psychotherapy –

These psychotherapies blend an understanding of Western psychology with Buddhist philosophy to understand how to access our core state of openness and joy.

Couples Therapy –

There are many different approaches to couples therapy, such as Collaborative Couples therapy (CCT) and Discernment & Divorce Counselling.

Behavioural Couples Therapy –

Encounter-Centred Transformation –

The Gottman Method –

Imago Therapy –

Relationship Enhancement Therapy –

Deep Brain Reorienting (DBR) –

DBR is an approach to healing trauma and especially attachment-based trauma. It was developed by Dr Frank Corrigan and is based on his neurophysiological work. The approach aims to heal the shock, horror and bodily residues of traumatic experiences and adverse interpersonal experiences. 

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) –

DBT is a therapy that was developed by the psychologist Marsha Linehan in the late 1980s. It is based on CBT but extends CBT principles to focus on several core components: emotional regulation, distress tolerance and interpersonal difficulties.

Dynamic Emotion-Focused therapy (DEFT) –

DEFT was developed by Susan Warren Warshow. It is a psychodynamicpsycho­dynamic therapy that focuses on shame-sensitivity and the inhibitory nature of shame as a main difficulty for clients. The therapy uses the attunement and empathy of the therapist as a main vehicle through which clients can start to break through the walls of shame that keep them blocked. 

Dynamic Interpersonal Therapy (DIT) –

To practicse DIT therapists have to be already qualified and trained in psychodynamic therapy and have a number of hours of supervised practice. DIT and interpersonal therapy (IPT) are both used in NHS services, especially for clients who struggle with depression and for which CBT is not recommended or helpful. NICE guidelines recommend this therapy, along with CBT, couples therapy for depression and counselling for depression.

Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) –

EMDR is a therapy that is recognized by NICE and the WHO as an effective therapy for trauma although it can be very effective with other difficulties also. It was developed by Francine Shapiro, a clinical psychologist who noticed that whilst she was thinking about something personally traumatic to her, her eyes were tracking side to side. Through the use of dual attention and bilateral stimulation (eye movements, music or tapping), the therapist aims to help the client reduce the overwhelming distress that some memories and feelings produce for clients. 

Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) –

EFT has been considered a psychological form of acupuncture as it involves tapping meridian points on the body to alleviate psychological distress. It has been found to be as effective as CBT and EMDR in a recent meta-analysis and has been utilized within some NHS services.

Emotion-Focused therapy (EFT) –

Developed by Leslie Greenberg in the 1970s, EFT is a therapy that places our emotions at the heart of therapy. Therapists take an experiential, humanistic approach, gently guiding the client to be able to experience and understand their emotions and reactions. 

Emotionally- Focused Therapy (EFT) –

Emotionally- focused therapy was developed by Dr Sue Johnson originally as a couples therapy technique. It is an approach that utilizes attachment science research to focus on helping us develop better relationships. The approach is structured and time-limited and works on changing cycles of interaction that cause us difficulties.

Emotional Schema Therapy (EST) 

Emotional Schema Therapyschema therapy is a new technique within CBT that has been developed by Dr Robert Leahy.

Existential Psychotherapy –

Existential therapy takes a philosophical approach to therapy and incorporates wider questions about the human condition and what it means to be alive and how questions of meaning affect us individually. It was developed by Viktor Frankl, who also devised ‘logotherapy’, a type of existential therapy

Family Therapies

Attachment Narrative Therapy –

Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy (DDP) –

Family & Systemic Psychotherapy –

Family Constellation therapy –

Filial Therapy –

Parent Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) –

Relationship Enhancement Therapy –

Focalizing Therapy –

Developed by Dr Michael Picucci, ‘focalizing’ is a therapy that aims to help clients overcome blocks with the use of an intensive form of body-focused meditation along with specific exercises. 

Focusing -Oriented Therapy –

Focusing is a therapy technique that was developed by Eugene Gendlin. It involves turning one’s attention to the momentary ‘felt sense’ and inner knowing that one can have but find it hard to put into words.

Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) –

FAP is an integrative approach to therapy that uses the therapeutic relationship as the medium through which to see what is happening for the client and help them change patterns that are no longer working for them. It blends research from the areas of social-cognitive, behavioural and neuroscientific research.

Flash Technique –

The Flash technique was developed by Philip Manfield PhD. It is an addition to the standard EMDR protocol and a way to help clients whose traumatic memories are too painful to access.

Group Traumatic Episode Protocol (GTEP) and Recent Traumatic Episode Protocol (RTEP) –

These protocols are used by EMDR practitioners for recent traumatic events as part of an early intervention strategy.

Gestalt therapy –

Gestalt as a therapy approach is an integrative psychotherapy that aims to help clients focus on the here and now and see how their patterns of relating to selfthemselves and others affects them holistically.

Hakomi Mindful Somatic Psychotherapy –

‘Hakomi’ is a Hopi Indian word that broadly translates to ‘Who am I?’. This method of psychotherapy was developed by Ron Kurtz in the 1970s. It uses mindfulness and attuning to the body and emotions whilst uncovering and addressing core beliefs that keep us stuck.

Havening Technique –

The Havening technique was developed by Dr Ronald Ruden. It involves recalling a traumatic experience and using distract -and -soothe techniques to concurrently distract your awareness from the trauma and soothe and calm your system down. There are no randomized controlled trials of Havening to help us understand how it might compare to other trauma therapies as yet.

Holographic Memory Resolution – (HMR) –

HMR is a technique developed by hypnotherapist and addiction therapist Brent Baum. It combines elements of hypnotherapy, energy healing, colour therapy and somatic psychology into a brief trauma-focused approach.

Human Givens aApproach –

The Human Givenshuman givens approach was developed in 1997 by a group of psychologists and psychotherapists who decided to research what actually works in psychotherapy and how to blend these factors into an effective therapy. Human Ggivens is a short-term, present-focused therapy that blends a variety of therapy techniques.

Humanistic Psychotherapy –

Humanistic approaches to therapy such as person-centred therapy, client-centred therapy and Rogerian therapy focus on helping the individual to move towards their potential rather than seeing pathology and disorder. It is a non-directive therapy; the therapist allows the client to take the lead but provides the core conditions of warmth, empathy and unconditional positive regard within which self-healing can take place.

Hypnotherapy –-– and see

On the Complementary and Natural Healthcare Council’s website (link above) you can check if the hypnotherapist you are seeing is registered with them. With so many different types of hypnotherapy training available it is important that the practitioner you see is appropriately trained. Hypnotherapy as an approach has been found to be effective for many conditions. It aims to encourage a natural state of focus and relaxation from which to work through difficulties. 

Internal Family Systems therapy (IFS) –

IFS therapy takes the position that we all have an undamaged, core, compassionate self that can be accessed, whilst also having other parts within us that protect us, defend us, or even act against our best interests sometimes. Therapy aims to access the central, core self and integrate the other parts of our system so that we are functioning from an integrated whole system.

Integral tTherapy –

An approach developed by the philosopher Ken Wilber that uses a five-element model that aims to bring together ideas from the main psychotherapy orientations into a ‘meta-orientation’.

Interpersonal therapy (IPT) –

IPT is a time-limited therapy that is used in the NHS for clients struggling with depression. It aims to help overcome relationship difficulties by seeing how these link with our mood.

Intensive Experiential-Dynamic Psychotherapy (IEDP) –

Developed by Ferruccio Osimo, IEDP was based on ISTDP, but places more emphasis on an exploration of the relationship between the therapist and patient.

Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP) –

Developed by the psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Habib Davanloo in the late 1960s, this adaptation to traditional psychoanalysis aims to provide the benefits of psychoanalysis but in a shorter time frame, for example 40 hours rather than 250–600 hours.

Jungian Analysis –

A deep analytical psychotherapy formed from the work of Carl Gustav Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist who was a contemporary of Sigmund Freud. Jungian analysis usually involves more than one session weekly and can invoclvude up to five sessions a week. It involves the gradual bringing into conscious awareness of deeper unconscious processes, sometimes with techniques such as dream journaling, art and music. Jungian analysts have to have previous experience in mental health prior to their advanced analytical training, which involves thrice -weekly personal therapy during their training.

Logotherapy –

Developed by Viktor Frankl as a form of existential analysis. ‘Logos’ comes , logotherapy (from logos, the Greek word for ‘Meaning’. Logotherapymeaning’) is a therapy that focuses on individual responsibility and finding ones true meaning and reason for living by looking at the things that block you from achieving this. 

Meta Cognitive Therapy (MCT) –

MCT was developed by Dr Adrian Wells and Dr Hans Nordahl and grew out of traditional CBT. It has been found to be effective for depression and anxiety and aims to work on the beliefs that keep people in a state of repetitive worry and rumination.

Mentaliszation-Based Treatment (MBT) –

MBT is an attachment-focused therapy that can be carried out either individually or in a group setting. It aims to help people understand their own thoughts, feelings, impulses and behaviours, and alsoas well as those of other people, in order to improve relationships.

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) –

MBCT is a blend of the mindfulness work of Jon Kabat-Zinn and the cognitive science and psychotherapeutic work of Zindel Segal, Mark Williams and John Teasdale. It has been shown to be effective for depression as well as a range of other issues.

Narrative Therapy –

Narrative therapy was developed by David Epston and Michael White. It is an approach that considers us within our sociocultural and familial context as well as the differing contexts which make up our identity. The approach focuses on helping us to ‘re-author’ our stories.

Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) –

NLP has been around since the 1970s and it is an approach which aims to helpshow us understand how we use language to understand ourselves and the world around us. Within the approach there are a range of techniques that can be used to help change the way that youwe think and perceive.

Personality-Guided Relational Therapy (PGRT) –

A form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Jeffrey J. Magnavita that focuses on the processes and conflicts within four subsystems of personality: biological-intrapsychic, interpersonal-dyadic, relational-triadic, and sociocultural-familial.

Positive Psychotherapy – (PPT) –

PPT is a short-term therapy that blends psychodynamic, transculturaltrans­cultural, CBT and humanistic approaches. It was developed in 1968 in Germany in 1968 by Nossrat Peseschkian and hasis based on three principles on which therapy is based: Hope, Balance, Consultation.

Psychoanalytical Psychotherapy –

Psychoanalytical therapy is an in-depth therapy that usually takes place more than once weekly for a year or more. The psychoanalytical therapist will create an empathic but neutral relationship space for the client’s unconscious patterns to come into conscious awareness. Psychoanalytical therapy was developed by Sigmund Freud.

Psychodrama –

Developed by the psychiatrist Jacob Levy Moreno in the 1920s, psychodrama is an approach that uses dramatic action and role play within a group therapy setting to bring issues into 3D space so that they can be worked through.

Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PPT) –

Psychodynamic therapy uses the same principles as psychoanalytical therapy but it tends to be briefer and can be utiliszed either as an individual therapy or as part of group or couple therapy.

Psycho-Organic Analysis (POA) –

POA was developed in 1975 by Paul Boyesoen. It is a blend of psychoanalytic theory in combination withand body psychotherapy. 

Psychosexual Psychotherapy –

Psychosexual therapists are usually trained not only in counselling and psychotherapy but in anatomy, physiology and pharmacology. This type of therapy blends the physical with the psychological in order to help clients in a highly specialized way.

Psychosynthesis –

Psychosynthesis therapy was developed by Dr Roberto Assagioli as an extension of his psychoanalytical training in the early 1900s. Dr Assagioli was influenced by theology and philosophy and this therapy aims to bring these extra dimensions into therapy. Psychosynthesis aims to incorporate the spiritual aspects of ourselves into therapy. It posits that we are many parts and that some of these parts have been repressed or denied. Therapy aims to help us get in touch with these lost parts of ourselves and become an integrated whole.

Reality Therapy (RT) –

Reality therapy is a counselling method that is based on William Glasser’s ‘choice theory’. The method focuses on how to fulfil our various needs within the context of maintaining healthy relationships with those around us.

Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) –

Developed in 1955 by Albert Ellis, a clinical psychologist who initially trained in psychoanalysis., REBT can be thought of as the first cognitive-behavioural therapy and was a strong influence on Aaron Beck’s development of cognitive Ttherapy. In REBT the work involves targeting unhelpful beliefs that can influence our behaviour. For example, ‘I’m useless’ can be a belief that people feel about themselves deep down, and so they try to avoid feeling this, yet some situations can activate this feeling and cause difficulties for the person.

Redecision Therapy –

A blend of transactional analysis and Gestalt therapy developed by Mary and Robert Goulding. It aims to help clients change the core messages that they may be carrying with them from childhood.

Regression Therapy –

Regression therapy is typically is a blend of psychoanalysis and hypnotherapy. The main principles of the approach areis that there are several core layers to our consciousness and therapy aims to help the person uncover the influence of past experiences. Some therapists look at past ‘lives’, but not all regression therapists include this as part of their practice.

Rewind Technique –

The ‘Rewind Technique’ rewind technique’ was originally called the ‘visual-kinesthetic dissociation technique’ and was a technique used in neuro-linguistic programming (NLP). It was later developed into a protocol for treating trauma memories by Human Givens therapists Joe Griffin and Ivan Tyrrell. 

Rapid Transformational Therapy (RTT) –

RTT was developed by Marissa Peer and is a brief approach which utilizes specific strategies from CBT, hypnotherapy and other psychotherapy approaches to provide a way of understanding the meaning and interpretation of client difficulties and help them effect change.

Schema Therapy –

Schema therapy was developed by Jeffrey Young and was a development of his work with Aaron Beck, the founder of cognitive therapy. Young saw that for some clients, the cognitive therapy model needed to go further in helping them with what he later termed ‘maladaptive early schemas’ – what would be called ‘core beliefs’ in CBT. Young focused on these schemas and discovered ways of helping clients understand how these core schemas affected their lives and led to certain coping styles. Schema therapy has become a recognized method for helping clients with longstanding difficulties. Practitioners need to be registered psychotherapists at Masters/Doctoralmaster’s/doctoral level in order to train as Sschema therapists.

Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) –

SFBT (also called Solution-Focused Practicesolution-focused practice, as it is used in many settings, for examplesuch as in coaching and business) grew out of the work of Steve de Shazer and Insoo Kim Berg at the Brief Family Therapy Center in Milwaukee in the 1980s. It is an approach that focuses on what is going right for you and how to harness this to achieve your goals.

Somatic experiencing – See ‘Body Psychotherapyies’

Sophrology –

Sophrology is a self-help method where the focus is on certain ‘dynamic relaxation’ methods to help produce feelings of calmness, focus and relaxation.

Sensorimotor therapy – See ‘Body Psychotherapyies’

Systemic Psychotherapy – See ‘Family Therapyies’

Tara Rokpa Therapy –

An approach that blends Western psychotherapy approaches to the mind with Buddhist traditions. It was developed by Akong Tulku Rinpoche over 30thirty years ago. The Tara Rokpa association is an accrediting member of UKCP.

Transactional Analysis (TA) – and

Transactional Aanalysis was developed by Eric Berne in the 1950s as a way of understanding personality and the interactions between people. AOne of its main ideas is that we have three core ego states: Parent, Adult, and Child, and that these show themselves in our communication patterns.

Theraplay –

Theraplay is a child and family therapy that focuses on the parent-child interaction and helps to create positive change within this relationship for both parties.

Thought Field Therapy (TFT) –

TFT is a tapping technique similar to EFT but uses a more involved set of steps and algorithms in its process.

Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) –

This approach is an adapted form of psychoanalysis which is used in the treatment of borderline personality disorder.

Transpersonal Psychotherapy –

Transpersonal therapy aims to help us not only to understand not only our psychological struggles and reach a state of psychological health, but also to embrace and explore our spiritual self and the wider spiritual context within which our different states of consciousness operate.

Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (TF-CBT) –

TF-CBT is a specific evidence-based protocol that was designed to be used with children and young people in association with their parents.

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